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    Face verification can be regarded as a two-class fine-grained visual-recognition problem. Enhancing the feature's discriminative power is one of the key problems to improve its performance. Metric-learning technology is often applied to address this need while achieving a good tradeoff between underfitting, and overfitting plays a vital role in metric learning. Hence, we propose a novel ensemble cascade metric-learning (ECML) mechanism. In particular, hierarchical metric learning is executed in a cascade way to alleviate underfitting. Meanwhile, at each learning level, the features are split into nonoverlapping groups. Then, metric learning is executed among the feature groups in the ensemble manner to resist overfitting. Considering the feature distribution characteristics of faces, a robust Mahalanobis metric-learning method (RMML) with a closed-form solution is additionally proposed. It can avoid the computation failure issue on an inverse matrix faced by some well-known metric-learning approaches (e.g., KISSME). Embedding RMML into the proposed ECML mechanism, our metric-learning paradigm (EC-RMML) can run in the one-pass learning manner. The experimental results demonstrate that EC-RMML is superior to state-of-the-art metric-learning methods for face verification. The proposed ECML mechanism is also applicable to other metric-learning approaches.


    Fu Xiong, Yang Xiao, Zhiguo Cao, Yancheng Wang, Joey Tianyi Zhou, Jianxin Wu. ECML: An Ensemble Cascade Metric-Learning Mechanism Toward Face Verification. IEEE transactions on cybernetics. 2022 Mar;52(3):1736-1749

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    PMID: 32520713

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