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A well-known metabolic side effect from treatment with glucocorticoids is glucocorticoid-induced diabetes mellitus (GIDM). Guidelines on the management of GIDM in hospitalized patients (in the non-critical care setting), recommend initiation of insulin therapy. The scientific basis and evidence for superiority of insulin therapy over other glucose lowering therapies is however poor and associated with episodes of both hypo- and hyperglycaemia. There is an unmet need for an easier, safe and convenient therapy for glucocorticoid-induced diabetes. EANITIATE is a Danish, open, prospective, multicenter, randomized (1:1), parallel group study in patients with new-onset diabetes following treatment with glucocorticoids (> 20 mg equivalent prednisolone dose/day) with blinded endpoint evaluation (PROBE design). Included patients are randomized to either a Sodium-Glucose-Cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor or neutral protamin Hagedorn (NPH) insulin and followed for 30 days. Blinded continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) will provide data for the primary endpoint (mean daily blood glucose) and on glucose fluctuations in the two treatment arms. Secondary endpoints are patient related outcomes, hypoglycaemia, means and measures of variation for all values and for time specific glucose values. This is a non-inferiority study with the intent to demonstrate that treatment with empagliflozin is not inferior to treatment with NPH insulin when it comes to glycemic control and side effects. This novel approach to management of glucocorticoid-induced hyperglycemia has not been tested before and if SGLT2 inhibition with empaglifozin compared to NPH-insulin is a safe, effective and resource sparing treatment for GIDM, it has the potential to improve the situation for affected patients and have health economic benefits. no.: 2018-002640-82. Prospectively registered November 20th. 2018. Date of first patient enrolled: June 4th. 2019. This protocol article is based on the EANITATE protocol version 1.3, dated 29. January 2018.


Carina Kirstine Klarskov, Helga Holm Schultz, Frederik Persson, Tomas Møller Christensen, Thomas Peter Almdal, Ole Snorgaard, Katrine Bagge Hansen, Ulrik Pedersen-Bjergaard, Peter Lommer Kristensen. Study rationale and design of the EANITIATE study (EmpAgliflozin compared to NPH Insulin for sTeroId diAbeTEs) - a randomized, controlled, multicenter trial of safety and efficacy of treatment with empagliflozin compared with NPH-insulin in patients with newly onset diabetes following initiation of glucocorticoid treatment. BMC endocrine disorders. 2020 Jun 15;20(1):86

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PMID: 32539810

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