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The field of phosphoinositide signaling has expanded significantly in recent years. Phosphoinositides (also known as phosphatidylinositol phosphates or PIPs) are universal signaling molecules that directly interact with membrane proteins or with cytosolic proteins containing domains that directly bind phosphoinositides and are recruited to cell membranes. Through the activities of phosphoinositide kinases and phosphoinositide phosphatases, seven distinct phosphoinositide lipid molecules are formed from the parent molecule, phosphatidylinositol. PIP signals regulate a wide range of cellular functions, including cytoskeletal assembly, membrane budding and fusion, ciliogenesis, vesicular transport, and signal transduction. Given the many excellent reviews on phosphoinositide kinases, phosphoinositide phosphatases, and PIPs in general, in this review, we discuss recent studies and advances in PIP lipid signaling in the retina. We specifically focus on PIP lipids from vertebrate (e.g., bovine, rat, mouse, toad, and zebrafish) and invertebrate (e.g., Drosophila, horseshoe crab, and squid) retinas. We also discuss the importance of PIPs revealed from animal models and human diseases, and methods to study PIP levels both in vitro and in vivo. We propose that future studies should investigate the function and mechanism of activation of PIP-modifying enzymes/phosphatases and further unravel PIP regulation and function in the different cell types of the retina. Copyright © 2021 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Raju V S Rajala. Signaling roles of phosphoinositides in the retina. Journal of lipid research. 2021;62:100041

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PMID: 32540927

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