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    There is a growing interest in using endogenous compounds as drug transporter biomarkers to facilitate drug-drug interaction (DDI) risk assessment in early phase I clinical trials. Compared to other drug transporters, however, no valid biomarker for hepatic organic cation transporter (OCT) 1 has been described to date. The present work represents the first report of an endogenous compound, isobutyryl-l-carnitine (IBC), as a potential clinical OCT1 biomarker for DDI assessment. A hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC)-mass spectrometry/high resolution mass spectrometry (MS/HRMS) assay with a simple sample preparation method was developed. The assay is capable of simultaneously quantifying multiple endogenous compounds, including IBC, thiamine, N1-methylnicotinamide (1-NMN), creatinine, carnitine, and metformin, which is a probe for OCT1 and OCT2 and MATE1 and MATE2K (multidrug and toxin extrusion proteins) in clinical studies. The HRMS assay was fit-for-purpose validated in human plasma and demonstrated good linearity, accuracy, and precision for all analytes. It was further applied to two phase I clinical trials to evaluate potential biomarkers for OCT1 and additional cation transporters (renal OCT2, MATE1, and MATE2K). The clinical data demonstrated that plasma IBC changes correlated well with in vitro data and supported its use as a liver OCT1 biomarker. The described HILIC-MS/HRMS assay can be used as a "biomarker cocktail" to simultaneously assess clinical DDI risk for the inhibition of OCT1/2 and MATEs in clinical studies with new drug candidates.


    Lina Luo, Ragu Ramanathan, Lauren Horlbogen, Sumathy Mathialagan, Chester Costales, Manoli Vourvahis, Christopher L Holliman, A David Rodrigues. A Multiplexed HILIC-MS/HRMS Assay for the Assessment of Transporter Inhibition Biomarkers in Phase I Clinical Trials: Isobutyryl-Carnitine as an Organic Cation Transporter (OCT1) Biomarker. Analytical chemistry. 2020 Jul 21;92(14):9745-9754

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    PMID: 32551505

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