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The tumour microenvironment (TME) includes a variety of non-neoplastic cells and non-cellular elements such as cytokines, growth factors and enzymes surrounding tumour cells. The TME emerged as a key modulator of tumour initiation, progression and invasion, with extensive data available in many cancers, but little is known in pituitary tumours. However, the understanding of the TME of pituitary tumours has advanced thanks to active research in this field over the last decade. Different immune and stromal cell subpopulations, and several cytokines, growth factors and matrix remodelling enzymes, have been characterised in pituitary tumours. Studying the TME in pituitary tumours may lead to a better understanding of tumourigenic mechanisms, identification of biomarkers useful to predict aggressive disease, and development of novel therapies. This review summarises the current knowledge on the different TME cellular/non-cellular elements in pituitary tumours and provides an overview of their role in tumourigenesis, biological behaviour and clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Pedro Marques, Ashley B Grossman, Márta Korbonits. The tumour microenvironment of pituitary neuroendocrine tumours. Frontiers in neuroendocrinology. 2020 Jul;58:100852

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PMID: 32553750

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