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Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a type of lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus), causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). This pathophysiologic state destroys the immune system allowing opportunistic infections, cancer and other life-threatening diseases to thrive. Although many analytic tools including enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA), indirect and line immunoassay, Western blotting, radio-immunoprecipitation, nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT) have been developed to detect HIV, recent developments in nanosensor technology have prompted its use as a novel diagnostic approach. Nanosensors provide analytical information about behavior and characteristics of particles by using biochemical reactions mediated by enzymes, immune components, cells and tissues. These reactions are transformed into decipherable signals, i.e., electrical, thermal, optical, using nano to micro scale technology. Nanosensors are capable of both quantitative and qualitative detection of HIV, are highly specific and sensitive and provide rapid reproducible results. Nanosensor technology can trace infant infection during mother-to-child transmission, the latent HIV pool and monitor anti-HIV therapy. In this chapter, we review nanosensor analytics including electrochemical, optical, piezoelectric, SERS-based lateral flow assay, microfluidic channel-based biosensors in the detection of HIV. Other techniques in combination with different biorecognition elements (aptamers, antibodies, oligonucleotides) are also discussed. © 2020 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Citation

Sarthak Nandi, Ayusi Mondal, Akanksha Roberts, Sonu Gandhi. Biosensor platforms for rapid HIV detection. Advances in clinical chemistry. 2020;98:1-34

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PMID: 32564784

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