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    Endogenous and exogenous hormones have significant effects on coagulation and may tip the hemostatic balance toward thrombosis. The endogenous hormonal changes in pregnancy and polycystic ovary syndrome, and exogenous hormonal contraception, menopause replacement, and transgender cross-hormone replacement may increase thromboembolism risk. Using the lowest effective dose is critical for prevention, but once thrombosis occurs, anticoagulation may be required, in some, long term. We review the relative risk of thrombosis in these conditions, risk factors, and anticoagulation treatment and prevention. Implementation of lowest effective hormonal therapies, thrombosis reduction strategies, and current anticoagulation management are critical for optimal patient outcomes. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


    Nicoletta Machin, Margaret V Ragni. Hormones and thrombosis: risk across the reproductive years and beyond. Translational research : the journal of laboratory and clinical medicine. 2020 Nov;225:9-19

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    PMID: 32599096

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