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    Increasing evidence has emerged that Mn derived from drinking water could be a health risk, especially for children. This study aimed to provide more information on the variation in Mn concentrations in well water and factors that affect manganese concentrations in groundwater in the natural environment. The geochemical data consisted of analyses of single water samples (n = 5311) that were taken only once and data from monitoring sites where water samples (n = 4607) were repeatedly taken and analyzed annually from the same wells. In addition, the well-specific results from six wells at monitoring sites were described in detail. We obtained the data on water samples from the groundwater database of Geological Survey of Finland. In single samples, Mn concentrations varied from < 0.02 µg/l to 5800 µg/l in bedrock well waters and up to 6560 µg/l in Quaternary deposit well waters. Results from single water samples from bedrock wells and Quaternary deposit wells indicated that the dissolved oxygen content has an inverse association with the Mn concentration. When the dissolved oxygen O2 levels were lower, the Mn concentrations were higher. No clear association was found between the Mn concentration and the pH or depth of the well for single samples. Part of Mn was particle bound, because total Mn was higher than soluble Mn in most measured samples. In the monitoring survey, large variation in Mn concentrations was found in bedrock well water in Kemijärvi, 114-352 µg/l, and in dug well water in Hämeenkoski, 8.77-2640 µg/l. Seasonal and spatial variability in Mn concentrations in water samples from two bedrock wells was large at monitoring sites in northern Finland. Variability in the Mn concentrations in groundwater can be large, even in the same area. These data suggest that single measurements of the Mn concentration from a water source may not reveal the Mn status, and measurement of both the total and soluble Mn concentrations may be recommended.


    Anne Kousa, Hannu Komulainen, Tarja Hatakka, Birgitta Backman, Sirpa Hartikainen. Variation in groundwater manganese in Finland. Environmental geochemistry and health. 2021 Mar;43(3):1193-1211

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    PMID: 32621276

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