Correlation Engine 2.0
Clear Search sequence regions

Sizes of these terms reflect their relevance to your search.

Fifteen percent of proliferating infantile hemangioma (IH) require intervention because of the threat to function or life, ulceration, or tissue distortion. Propranolol is the mainstay treatment for problematic proliferating IH. Other β-blockers and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors have been explored as alternative treatments. The demonstration of a hemogenic endothelium origin of IH, with a neural crest phenotype and multi-lineage differentiation capacity, regulated by the renin-angiotensin system, underscores its programmed biologic behavior and accelerated involution induced by propranolol, other β-blockers and ACE inhibitors. We review the indications, dosing regimens, duration of treatment, efficacy and adverse effects of propranolol, and therapeutic alternatives including oral atenolol, acebutolol, nadolol, intralesional propranolol injections, topical propranolol and timolol, and oral captopril. Improved understanding of the biology of IH provides insights into the mechanism of action underscoring its accelerated involution induced by propranolol, other β-blockers and ACE inhibitors. More research is required to understand the optimal dosing and duration, efficacy and safety of these alternative therapies. Recent demonstration of propranolol's actions mediated by non-β-adrenergic isomer R-propranolol on stem cells, offers an immense opportunity to harness the efficacy of β-blockers to induce accelerated involution of IH, while mitigating their β-adrenergic receptor-mediated adverse effects.


Sabrina P Koh, Philip Leadbitter, Fiona Smithers, Swee T Tan. β-blocker therapy for infantile hemangioma. Expert review of clinical pharmacology. 2020 Aug;13(8):899-915

Expand section icon Mesh Tags

Expand section icon Substances

PMID: 32662682

View Full Text