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Warfarin is a frequently prescribed oral anticoagulant with a narrow therapeutic index, requiring careful dosing and monitoring. However, patients respond with significant inter-individual variability in terms of the dose and responsiveness of warfarin, attributed to genetic polymorphisms within the genes responsible for the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of warfarin. Extensive warfarin pharmacogenetic studies have been conducted, including studies resulting in genotype-guided dosing guidelines, but few large scale studies have been conducted with the Saudi population. In this study, we report the study design and baseline characteristics of the Saudi WArfarin Pharmacogenomics (SWAP) cohort, as well as the association of the VKORC1 promoter variants with the warfarin dose and the time to a stable INR. In the 936 Saudi patients recruited in the SWAP study, the minor allele C of rs9923231 was significantly associated with a 8.45 mg higher weekly warfarin dose (p value = 4.0 × 10-46), as well as with a significant delay in achieving a stable INR level. The addition of the rs9923231 status to the model, containing all the significant clinical variables, doubled the warfarin dose explained variance to 31%. The SWAP cohort represents a valuable resource for future research with the objective of identifying rare and prevalent genetic variants, which can be incorporated in personalized anticoagulation therapy for the Saudi population.


Maha Al Ammari, Mohammed AlBalwi, Khizra Sultana, Ibrahim B Alabdulkareem, Bader Almuzzaini, Nada S Almakhlafi, Mohammed Aldrees, Jahad Alghamdi. The effect of the VKORC1 promoter variant on warfarin responsiveness in the Saudi WArfarin Pharmacogenetic (SWAP) cohort. Scientific reports. 2020 Jul 15;10(1):11613

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PMID: 32669629

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