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The adrenal gland is an essential component of the body stress response; it is formed by two portions: a steroidogenic and a chromaffin tissue. Despite the anatomy of adrenal gland is different among classes of vertebrates, the hormones produced are almost the same. During stress, these hormones contribute to body homeostasis and maintenance of ion balance. The adrenal gland is very sensitive to toxic compounds, many of which behave like endocrine-disruptor chemicals (EDCs). They contribute to alter the endocrine system in wildlife and humans and are considered as possible responsible of the decline of several vertebrate ectotherms. Considering that EDCs regularly can be found in all environmental matrices, the aim of this review is to collect information about the impact of these chemical compounds on the adrenal gland of fishes, amphibians and reptiles. In particular, this review shows the different behavior of these "sentinel species" when they are exposed to stress condition. The data supplied in this review can help to further elucidate the role of EDCs and their harmful impact on the survival of these vertebrates. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Mariana Di Lorenzo, Teresa Barra, Luigi Rosati, Salvatore Valiante, Anna Capaldo, Maria De Falco, Vincenza Laforgia. Adrenal gland response to endocrine disrupting chemicals in fishes, amphibians and reptiles: A comparative overview. General and comparative endocrinology. 2020 Oct 01;297:113550

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PMID: 32679158

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