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Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) arising from sites other than the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, termed extra-gastrointestinal stromal tumors (EGIST), are rare. Among EGIST, those with platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRA) mutations are even rarer, with only a few cases reported. About 80% of GIST has KIT mutations, and 10% of GIST have PDGFRA mutations, which commonly affect the TK2 domain (exon 18). Among the exon 18 mutations, the D842V substitution is limited to gastric GIST. In EGIST, the degree of KIT and PDGFRA mutations varies on where the location of the tumor is, and it is suggested that omental EGIST is similar to gastric GIST. Adjuvant imatinib therapy is recommended for high-risk GIST; however, it is known that imatinib is less effective against GIST with a PDGFRA D842V mutation. A 75-year-old man was referred to our hospital with an extrinsic tumor of the lesser curvature of the gastric body. Intraoperative findings showed a tumor located outside of the lesser omentum with no connection between the tumor and the gastric wall. The tumor was subsequently resected. Pathological examination indicated a GIST arising in the lesser omentum measuring 70 mm in its longer dimension. Because the tumor had a PDGFRA mutation (D842V substitution), imatinib was suspected to lack efficacy to the tumor. Thus, although the tumor was considered clinically to have a high risk of recurrence, adjuvant imatinib therapy was not indicated. The patient has been free of recurrence for 29 months since the surgery. We described a case of EGIST with a PDGFRA mutation arising in the lesser omentum. And we reviewed 57 cases of omental EGIST and showed that the clinicopathological characteristics and mutation status in omental EGIST were very similar to gastric GIST. In particular, PDGFAR D842V mutation rate in omental EGIST seemed as high as that in gastric GIST. These results suggested that omental EGIST is strongly related to gastric GIST, so the behavior of omental EGIST might be akin to gastric GIST. However, further studies are required to determine the prognosis and the necessity of adjuvant therapy for EGIST with a PDGFRA mutation.

Citation

Kohei Kanamori, Yukinori Yamagata, Yoshitaka Honma, Keiichi Date, Takeyuki Wada, Tsutomu Hayashi, Sho Otsuki, Shigeki Sekine, Takaki Yoshikawa, Hitoshi Katai, Toshiro Nishida. Extra-gastrointestinal stromal tumor arising in the lesser omentum with a platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRA) mutation: a case report and literature review. World journal of surgical oncology. 2020 Jul 23;18(1):183

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PMID: 32703220

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