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Astrocytes are a heterogeneous population of neural cells with diverse structural, functional and molecular characteristics responsible for homeostasis and protection of the central nervous system (CNS). Unlike neurones, astrocytes do not generate action potentials, but employ fluctuations of cytosolic ions as a substrate for their excitability. Ionic signals are associated with neuronal activity and these signals initiate an array of responses ranging from the activation of plasmalemmal homeostatic transporters to the secretion of numerous signalling molecules including neuromodulators, neurotransmitter precursors, metabolic substrates, trophic factors and cytokines. Thus, astrocytes regulate the synaptic connectivity of the neuronal networks by supporting neurotransmitter metabolism, synaptogenesis, synaptic elimination and the synaptic plasticity that contributes to cognitive processing including learning, memory, emotionality and behaviour. Astroglia-specific regulatory pathways affect the most fundamental properties of neuronal networks from their excitability to synaptic connectivity. Thus, it is the concerted action of glia and neurones, which, through distinct mechanisms, produce the behavioural outputs of the ultimate control centre that we call the brain. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Citation

Marcus Augusto-Oliveira, Gabriela P Arrifano, Priscila Y Takeda, Amanda Lopes-Araújo, Leticia Santos-Sacramento, Daniel C Anthony, Alexei Verkhratsky, Maria Elena Crespo-Lopez. Astroglia-specific contributions to the regulation of synapses, cognition and behaviour. Neuroscience and biobehavioral reviews. 2020 Nov;118:331-357


PMID: 32768488

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