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Cancer immunotherapy evolved as a new treatment modality to eradicate tumor cells and has gained in popularity after its successful clinical transition. By activating antigen-presenting cells (APCs), and thus, inducing innate or adaptive immune responses, immunoadjuvants have become promising tools for cancer immunotherapy. Different types of immunoadjuvants such as toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists, exosomes, and metallic and plant-derived immunoadjuvants have been studied for their immunological effects. However, the clinical use of immunoadjuvants is limited by short response rates and various side-effects. The rapid progress made in the development of nanoparticle systems as immunoadjuvant carrier vehicles has provided potential carriers for cancer immunotherapy. In this review article, we describe different types of immunoadjuvants, their limitations, modes of action, and the reasons for their clinical adoption. In addition, we review recent progress made in the nanoparticle-based immunoadjuvant field and on the combined use of nanoparticle-based immunoadjuvants and chemotherapy, phototherapy, radiation therapy, and immune checkpoint inhibitor-based therapy. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: Cancer immunotherapy emerged as a new hope for treating malignant tumors. Different types of immunoadjuvants serve as an important tool for cancer immunotherapy by activating an innate or adaptive immune response. Limitation of free immunoadjuvant has paved the path for the development of nanoparticle-based immunoadjuvant therapy with the hope of prolonging the therapeutic efficacy. This review highlights the recent advancement made in nanoparticle-based immunoadjuvant therapy in modulating the adaptive and innate immune system. The application of the combinatorial approach of chemotherapy, phototherapy, radiation therapy adds synergy in nanoparticle-based immunoadjuvant therapy. It will broaden the reader's understanding on the recent progress made in immunotherapy with the aid of immunoadjuvant-based nanosystem. Copyright © 2020 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Citation

Asmita Banstola, Jee-Heon Jeong, Simmyung Yook. Immunoadjuvants for cancer immunotherapy: A review of recent developments. Acta biomaterialia. 2020 Sep 15;114:16-30

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PMID: 32777293

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