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Trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias (TACs) are a group of 4 different primary headache syndromes that have a lot of pathophysiological and clinical features in common. The 4 different TACs are: cluster headache, paroxysmal hemicrania, short-lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache attacks and hemicrania continua. TACs are characterized by frequent, strictly unilateral, (very) intense headache attacks with ipsilateral cranial autonomic symptoms or intrinsic restlessness or both. A distinction can be made between the 4 TACs on the basis of the duration and frequency of the headache attacks. The treatment of cluster headache consists of an acute treatment and a maintenance treatment. Headache attacks in the context of paroxysmal hemicrania and hemicrania continua (almost) always respond to treatment with indomethacin. More and more neuromodulation therapies are becoming available, such as vagus nerve stimulation, stimulation and blocking of the sphenopalatine ganglion, stimulation and blocking of the occipital nerve and deep brain stimulation.


R B Brandt, J Haan, M D Ferrari, R Fronczek. Cluster headache and other trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias]. Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde. 2020 Jul 02;164

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PMID: 32779921

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