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Rationale: Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) results from exposure to a variety of stimuli, which are challenging to identify. Questionnaires and serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) testing are methods to identify potentially causative exposures.Objectives: To perform a systematic review to determine the usefulness of questionnaires and serum IgG testing in identifying exposures that may have caused HP.Methods: This systematic review informed an international, multidisciplinary panel that developed a clinical practice guideline on the diagnosis of HP for the American Thoracic Society, Japanese Respiratory Society, and Asociación Latinoamericana del Tórax. MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, and EMBASE were searched from January 1946 to October 2019 for studies that used a questionnaire or serum IgG testing to identify exposures that may have caused HP. The Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach was used to appraise the quality of the evidence.Results: Searches identified 1,141 and 926 potentially relevant articles for questionnaires and serum IgG testing, respectively. The full texts of 32 and 49 articles, respectively, were reviewed. Two observational studies for questionnaires and 15 accuracy studies for serum IgG testing were selected. Questionnaires were better at detecting potentially relevant exposures than clinical history (100% vs. 26%; risk ratio [RR], 3.80; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.79-8.06) and serum IgG testing (100% vs. 63%; RR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.12-2.23) but did not differ from serum IgG testing plus bronchial challenge testing (59% vs. 65%; RR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.65-1.24). Longer, detailed questionnaires were more likely to lead to identification of potential exposures. Only 70% of potential exposures identified by questionnaires were subsequently confirmed by environmental testing. Serum IgG testing distinguished HP from healthy exposed and unexposed control subjects with high sensitivity (90% and 92%, respectively) and high specificity (91% and 100%, respectively) but did not distinguish HP as effectively from interstitial lung diseases (ILDs; sensitivity of 83% and specificity of 68%).Conclusions: Using a questionnaire may help clinicians identify potentially relevant exposures when evaluating a patient with newly identified ILD for HP. Serum IgG testing may also lead to identification of potentially relevant exposures, but its usefulness for distinguishing HP from other types of ILD is poor.


Alex R Jenkins, Abigail Chua, Hassan Chami, Javier Diaz-Mendoza, Abhijit Duggal, Shandra Knight, Setu Patolia, Maximiliano Tamae-Kakazu, Ganesh Raghu, Kevin C Wilson. Questionnaires or Serum Immunoglobulin G Testing in the Diagnosis of Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis among Patients with Interstitial Lung Disease. Annals of the American Thoracic Society. 2021 Jan;18(1):130-147

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PMID: 32780584

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