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Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are fatty acid-activated transcription factors of nuclear hormone receptor superfamily that regulate energy metabolism. Currently, three PPAR subtypes have been identified: PPARα, PPARγ, and PPARβ/δ. PPARα and PPARδ are highly expressed in oxidative tissues and regulate genes involved in substrate delivery and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and regulation of energy homeostasis. In contrast, PPARγ is more important in lipogenesis and lipid synthesis, with highest expression levels in white adipose tissue (WAT). In addition to tissues regulating whole body energy homeostasis, PPARs are expressed in immune cells and have an emerging critical role in immune cell differentiation and fate commitment. In this review, we discuss the actions of PPARs in the function of the innate and the adaptive immune system and their implications in immune-mediated inflammatory conditions. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Anthos Christofides, Eirini Konstantinidou, Chinmay Jani, Vassiliki A Boussiotis. The role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) in immune responses. Metabolism: clinical and experimental. 2021 Jan;114:154338

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PMID: 32791172

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