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    The cathode ray tube (CRT) is a common and important tool that has been in use for decades, with which behavioral and visual neuroscientists deliver specific visual images generated by computers. Considering the operating principle of the CRT, the image it presents can flick at a constant rate, which will introduce distractions to the visual experiments on subjects with higher temporal resolutions. While this entrainment has been proved common in recordings of the primary visual cortex of mammals, it is uncertain whether it also exists in the intermediate to deep layers of pigeon's optic tectum, which is relevant to the spatial attention. Here, we present continuous visual stimuli with different refresh rates and luminances couples shown on a CRT to pigeons. The recordings in the intermediate to deep layers of optic tectum were significantly phase locking to the refresh of the CRT, and lower refresh rates of the CRT with higher brightness more likely introduced artifacts in electrophysiological recordings of pigeons, which may seriously damage their visual information perception.


    Jiangtao Wang, Xiaoke Niu, Songwei Wang, Zhizhong Wang, Li Shi. Entrainment within neuronal response in optic tectum of pigeon to video displays. Journal of comparative physiology. A, Neuroethology, sensory, neural, and behavioral physiology. 2020 Nov;206(6):845-855

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    PMID: 32809044

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