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Multiple viruses are implicated in atherosclerosis, but the mechanisms by which they infect cells and contribute to plaque formation in arterial walls are not well understood. Based on reports showing the presence of enterovirus in atherosclerotic plaques we hypothesized that the coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CXADR/CAR), although absent in normal arteries, could be induced during plaque formation. Large-scale microarray and mass spectrometric analyses revealed significant up-regulation of CXADR messenger RNA and protein levels in plaque-invested carotid arteries compared with control arteries. Macrophages were identified as a previously unknown cellular source of CXADR in human plaques and plaques from Ldr-/-Apob100/100 mice. CXADR was specifically associated with M1-polarized macrophages and foam cells and was experimentally induced during macrophage differentiation. Furthermore, it was significantly correlated with receptors for other viruses linked to atherosclerosis. The results show that CXADR is induced in macrophages during plaque formation, suggesting a mechanism by which enterovirus infect cells in atherosclerotic plaques. © The Author(s) 2020. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.


Azadeh Nilchian, Estelle Plant, Malgorzata M Parniewska, Ana Santiago, Aránzazu Rossignoli, Josefin Skogsberg, Ulf Hedin, Ljubica Matic, Jonas Fuxe. Induction of the Coxsackievirus and Adenovirus Receptor in Macrophages During the Formation of Atherosclerotic Plaques. The Journal of infectious diseases. 2020 Nov 13;222(12):2041-2051

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PMID: 32852032

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