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    To update information about the internationally accepted standards and clinical recommendations for the detection and diagnosis of primary aldosteronism (PA). The Taiwan Society of Aldosteronism (TSA) Task Force reviewed the latest literature and reached a consensus after group meetings. The nine critical issues were recognized to provide updated information and internationally acceptable protocols. When screening for PA by using the plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC) to plasma renin activity (PRA) ratio (ARR), withdrawal or adjustment of antihypertensive medication is not always necessary on the first patient visit. Hypokalemia should be corrected before ARR screening. In spontaneous hypokalemia, plasma renin below detection levels, and PAC higher than 20 ng/dL (550 pmol/L), further confirmatory testing is unnecessary for PA diagnosis. Direct renin concentration (DRC) could be used for PA diagnosis if PRA is unavailable. Although additional confirmatory tests are suggested, the result of a single test is still reliable. For patient safety, discontinuation or adjustment of antihypertensive medications is indicated before adrenal venous sampling (AVS). ACTH could be beneficial for successful adrenal vein cannulation but is not necessary for determining lateralization in AVS. Simultaneous technique is preferred for AVS. Adrenal NP-59 scintigraphy integrated with SPECT/CT could guide PA management. With introduction of these new concepts to the clinicians, we expect better identification, management and treatment of PA patients. Copyright © 2020. Published by Elsevier B.V.


    Chin-Chen Chang, Ying-Ying Chen, Tai-Shuan Lai, Yi-Hong Zeng, Chung-Kuang Chen, Kun-Hua Tu, Ching-Chu Lu, Vin-Cent Wu, Leay Kiaw Er, TAIPAI Study Group. Taiwan mini-frontier of primary aldosteronism: Updating detection and diagnosis. Journal of the Formosan Medical Association = Taiwan yi zhi. 2021 Jan;120(1 Pt 1):121-129

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    PMID: 32855034

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