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    Background: Gas-forming pyogenic liver abscess (GFPLA) accounts for up to 30% of all pyogenic liver abscess (PLA) cases. However, little is known of the differences in clinical features and prognosis between GFPLA and non-GFPLA. Aim: This retrospective study compared the clinical features and prognosis of GFPLA and non-GFPLA. Patients and Methods: Data for 392 patients with PLA treated from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2016 were reviewed. Gas-forming pyogenic liver abscess was defined as gas in the abscess. Liver abscesses were considered non-GFPLA (nā€‰=ā€‰326) or GFPLA (nā€‰=ā€‰66). The clinical features and outcomes of patients with GFPLA were compared with that of patients without GFPLA. Results: The groups were similar in gender ratio, age, smoking, drinking, and comorbidities. Klebsiella pneumoniae was the most common pathogenic bacteria, but the negative rate of bacterial culture of the non-GFPLA group was higher than that of the GFPLA. In etiologies, the GFPLA group had more biliary source infection and less cryptogenic infection. In addition, the GFPLA group had a higher rate of previous hepatobiliary surgery, especially biliary enteric anastomosis. Compared with the non-GFPLA group, the percentage of the GFPLA group with antibiotic agents combined with percutaneous drainage was higher, whereas the percentages given antibiotic agents alone and antibiotic agents combined with surgical drainage were lower. Patients with GFPLA had higher rates of sepsis and pleural effusion, and longer hospital stays than did non-GFPLA patients. No patient died during hospitalization. Conclusions: The GFPLA group had more biliary source infection and less cryptogenic infection in etiologies. Gas-forming pyogenic liver abscess is associated with past hepatobiliary surgery, especially biliary enteric anastomosis and has high rates of sepsis and long hospitalization. Thus, the patients with PLA with a history of hepatobiliary surgery should be monitored more closely in the early stage of the PLA. It needs to be recognized as a distinct clinical entity.


    Jia Zhang, Yi Gao, Zhaoqing Du, Yifan Ren, Jianbin Bi, Zheng Wu, Yi Lv, Rongqian Wu. Clinical Features and Prognosis of Gas-Forming and Non-Gas-Forming Pyogenic Liver Abscess: A Comparative Study. Surgical infections. 2021 May;22(4):427-433

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    PMID: 32857017

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