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Factor X activation by the intrinsic Xase complex, composed of factor IXa bound to factor VIIIa on membranes, is essential for the amplified blood coagulation response. The biological significance of this step is evident from bleeding arising from deficiencies in factors VIIIa or IXa in hemophilia. Here, we assess the mechanism(s) that enforce the distinctive specificity of intrinsic Xase for its biological substrate. Active-site function of IXa was assessed with a tripeptidyl substrate (PF-3688). The reversible S1 site binder, 4-aminobenzamidine (pAB), acted as a classical competitive inhibitor of PF-3688 cleavage by Xase. In contrast, pAB acted as a noncompetitive inhibitor of factor X activation. This disconnect between peptidyl substrate and protein substrate cleavage indicates a major role for interactions between factor X and extended sites on Xase in determining substrate affinity. Accordingly, an uncleavable factor X variant, not predicted to engage the active site of IXa within Xase, acted as a classical competitive inhibitor of factor X activation. Fluorescence studies confirmed the binding of factor X to Xase assembled with IXa with a covalently blocked active site. Our findings suggest that the recognition of factor X by the intrinsic Xase complex occurs through a multistep "dock-and-lock" pathway in which the initial interaction between factor X and intrinsic Xase occurs at exosites distant from the active site, followed by active-site docking and bond cleavage. © 2020 Basavaraj and Krishnaswamy.


Manjunath Goolyam Basavaraj, Sriram Krishnaswamy. Exosite binding drives substrate affinity for the activation of coagulation factor X by the intrinsic Xase complex. The Journal of biological chemistry. 2020 Nov 06;295(45):15198-15207

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PMID: 32859749

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