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ALG-2 is a penta-EF-hand Ca2+-binding protein and interacts with a variety of proteins in mammalian cells. In order to find new ALG-2-binding partners, we searched a human protein database and retrieved sequences containing the previously identified ALG-2-binding motif type 2 (ABM-2). After selecting 12 high-scored sequences, we expressed partial or full-length GFP-fused proteins in HEK293 cells and performed a semi-quantitative in vitro binding assay. SARAF, a negative regulator of store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE), showed the strongest binding activity. Biochemical analysis of Strep-tagged and GFP-fused SARAF proteins revealed ubiquitination that proceeded during pulldown assays under certain buffer conditions. Overexpression of ALG-2 interfered with ubiquitination of wild-type SARAF but not ubiquitination of the F228S mutant that had impaired ALG-2-binding activity. The SARAF cytosolic domain (CytD) contains two PPXY motifs targeted by the WW domains of NEDD4 family E3 ubiquitin ligases. The PPXY motif proximal to the ABM-2 sequence was found to be more important for both in-cell ubiquitination and post-cell lysis ubiquitination. A ubiquitination-defective mutant of SARAF with Lys-to-Arg substitutions in the CytD showed a slower degradation rate by half-life analysis. ALG-2 promoted Ca2+-dependent CytD-to-CytD interactions of SARAF. The ALG-2 dimer may modulate the stability of SARAF by sterically blocking ubiquitination and by bridging SARAF molecules at the CytDs.

Citation

Wei Zhang, Ayaka Muramatsu, Rina Matsuo, Naoki Teranishi, Yui Kahara, Terunao Takahara, Hideki Shibata, Masatoshi Maki. The Penta-EF-Hand ALG-2 Protein Interacts with the Cytosolic Domain of the SOCE Regulator SARAF and Interferes with Ubiquitination. International journal of molecular sciences. 2020 Aug 31;21(17)

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PMID: 32878247

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