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Cellular uptake of vitamin B12 (cobalamin, Cbl) is mediated by a cell surface receptor (TCblR/CD320) that binds transcobalamin (TC) saturated with Cbl. TC is secreted by the vascular endothelium, has a relatively short half-life, binds Cbl with high affinity and presents the vitamin to the receptor for cellular uptake. Here we show binding and internalization of the TC-Cbl complex along with its' receptor (TCblR) in several human cell lines. The expression of TCblR is linked to the cell cycle with highest expression in actively proliferating cells. Upon binding TC-Cbl, the receptors appear to segregate on the plasma membrane and are internalized over the course of 30-60 min. Subsequently, the receptors appear to be destroyed along with the TC, which results in the release of free Cbl in the lysosome. The appearance of TCblR on the cell surface is limited to newly synthesized protein without contribution from recycling of the receptor. Therefore, Cbl uptake into cells is fully dependent on the expression of newly synthesized TCblR that is up-regulated in actively proliferating cells. The cell cycle-associated up-regulation of TCblR in cancers provides a route for targeted drug delivery. Published by Elsevier Inc.

Citation

Gregory G Gick, Kaveri Arora, Jeffrey M Sequeira, Yasumi Nakayama, Shao-Chiang Lai, Edward V Quadros. Cellular uptake of vitamin B12: Role and fate of TCblR/CD320, the transcobalamin receptor. Experimental cell research. 2020 Nov 01;396(1):112256

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PMID: 32898552

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