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Most types of intracranial germ cell tumors (IGCTs) are sensitive to chemoradiation. However, biopsy specimens are usually small and thus cannot be used for obtaining an accurate pathological diagnosis. Recently, the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP) value has been considered a new biomarker of IGCTs. The present study aimed to evaluate the discriminatory characteristics of the CSF-PLAP value upon diagnosis and at the time of recurrence in patients with IGCTs. Between 2015 and 2019, this study included 37 patients with tumors located in the intraventricular and/or periventricular region. The CSF-PLAP level was assessed before the patients received any treatment. The PLAP level was evaluated during and after first-line chemoradiotherapy in 7 patients with IGCTs. The CSF-PLAP values were compared according to histological diagnosis, and the correlation between these values and radiographical features was assessed. The CSF-PLAP values of 6 patients with IGCTs with suspected recurrence were evaluated based on neuroimaging findings. The CSF-PLAP values were significantly higher in patients with IGCTs than in those with other types of brain tumor (n = 19 vs. 18; median: 359.0 vs. <8.0 pg/mL). The specificity and sensitivity were 88 and 95%, respectively, with a cutoff value of 8.0 pg/mL. In patients with IGCT, the CSF-PLAP value was higher in patients with germinoma than in those with nongerminomatous germ cell tumors (n = 12 vs. 7; median: 415.0 vs. 359.0 pg/mL). Regarding the time course, the CSF-PLAP value decreased to below the detection limit after the reception of first-line chemoradiotherapy in all 7 patients. A significant correlation was observed between the initial CSF-PLAP value and the tumor reduction volume after receiving first-line chemoradiotherapy (p < 0.0003, R2 = 0.6165, logY = 1.202logX - 1.727). Among the patients with suspected IGCT recurrence (n = 6), the CSF-PLAP value was high in patients with recurrence (n = 3; median: 259.0 pg/mL), and that in patients (n = 3) without recurrence was below the lower detection limit. The CSF-PLAP level is a useful biomarker during the initial diagnosis of IGCTs and at the time of recurrence. It may be associated with the volume of germinomatous components of tumors. © 2020 S. Karger AG, Basel.


Michinari Okamoto, Shigeru Yamaguchi, Yukitomo Ishi, Hiroaki Motegi, Takashi Mori, Takayuki Hashimoto, Yukayo Terashita, Shinsuke Hirabayashi, Minako Sugiyama, Akihiro Iguchi, Yuko Cho, Atsushi Manabe, Kiyohiro Houkin. Diagnostic Capability of Cerebrospinal Fluid-Placental Alkaline Phosphatase Value in Intracranial Germ Cell Tumor. Oncology. 2021;99(1):23-31

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PMID: 32906115

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