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    Human OAT1 and OAT3 play major roles in renal drug elimination and drug-drug interactions. However, there is little information on the interactions of drug metabolites with transporters. The goal of this study was to characterize the interactions of drug metabolites with OAT1 and OAT3 and compare their potencies of inhibition with those of their corresponding parent drugs. Using HEK293 cells stably transfected with OAT1 and OAT3, 25 drug metabolites and their corresponding parent drugs were screened for inhibitory effects on OAT1-and OAT3-mediated 6-carboxyfluorescein uptake at a screening concentration of 200 μM for all but 3 compounds. 20 and 24 drug metabolites were identified as inhibitors (inhibition > 50%) of OAT1 and OAT3, respectively. Seven drug metabolites were potent inhibitors of either or both OAT1 and OAT3 with Ki values less than 1 μM. 22 metabolites were more potent inhibitors of OAT3 than OAT1. Importantly, one drug and four metabolites were predicted to inhibit OAT3 at unbound plasma concentrations achieved clinically (Cmax,u/Ki values ≥ 0.1). In conclusion, our study highlights the potential interactions of drug metabolites with OAT1 and OAT3 at clinically relevant concentrations, suggesting that drug metabolites may modulate therapeutic and adverse drug response by inhibiting renal drug transporters. Copyright © 2020 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


    Ling Zou, Pär Matsson, Adrian Stecula, Huy X Ngo, Arik A Zur, Kathleen M Giacomini. Drug Metabolites Potently Inhibit Renal Organic Anion Transporters, OAT1 and OAT3. Journal of pharmaceutical sciences. 2021 Jan;110(1):347-353

    PMID: 32910949

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