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    To reduce systemic bleeding risks during anticoagulant treatment, a new concept named "precise anticoagulation" was proposed to localize the effects of anticoagulants via the targeted delivery of prodrugs to the coagulation site. In this study, the fusion protein Annexin V-hirudin 3-ABD (hAvHA) was constructed to achieve the prolonged circulation and targeted delivery of hirudin to coagulation sites. hAvHA was inactive as a prodrug, and it could bind to albumin during circulation. The drug was quickly activated via factor Xa-mediated cleavage once coagulation occurred, and hirudin was efficiently released to exert antithrombin activity in vitro. The hAvHA protein could be activated in mouse blood and exert significant anticoagulation effects. The results of FITC labeling illustrated that hAvHA bound to procoagulant platelets, suggesting the Annexin V modification permits targeted delivery to sites of thrombosis. hAvHA bound to albumin in vitro with an equilibrium dissociation constant of 8 pM, suggesting the ABD modification permitted prolonged circulation in vivo. Moreover, the bleeding time was much shorter in hAvHA-treated mice than in hirudin-treated mice. Therefore, our results suggested that that hAvHA is a potential and promising anticoagulant in vivo. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


    Hu-Hu Han, Hai-Tao Zhang, Ru Wang, Yi Yan, Xiaoyan Liu, Yinye Wang, Yuanjun Zhu, Jian-Cheng Wang. Improving long circulation and procoagulant platelet targeting by engineering of hirudin prodrug. International journal of pharmaceutics. 2020 Nov 15;589:119869

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    PMID: 32919000

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