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Autoimmune encephalitis is complex and varied, but it is a curable disease. However, the diagnosis and treatment of children with Autoimmune encephalitis remains challenging. Therefore, we conducted this study to analyze the clinical features, electroencephalogram (EEG) characteristics, treatment and prognosis of autoimmune encephalitis in children with negative and positive anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antibody. From January 2015 to January 2017, 28 child patients with autoimmune encephalitis were hospitalized in the Neural Ward of the Children's Medical Center, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University. Inclusion criteria were based on the diagnostic criteria for autoimmune encephalitis published in Lancet Neurology in 2016. The clinical, EEG and imaging data were summarized. The clinical features, treatment regimen, follow-up and prognosis were also analyzed. Among these 28 child patients, 10 patients had positive anti-NMDAR antibody, while 18 patients had negative anti-NMDAR antibody. The clinical manifestations, EEG findings and seizures were similar (P>0.05) between these two groups. All 28 child patients were treated with methylprednisolone shock and human immunoglobulin. The response to immunotherapy was similar between these two groups (P>0.05). The clinical manifestation of autoimmune encephalitis is complex and varied, but it is a curable disease. Immunotherapy should be considered as soon as possible, with or without autoantibodies. Most of the child patients had a good prognosis, while some of them had the sequelae of epilepsy, mild mental symptoms, and dyskinesia. It is necessary to improve the understanding of autoimmune encephalitis with/without positive antibodies, and make diagnosis and treatment as soon as possible, in order to improve the prognosis.


Li-Li Tong, Xiao-Fan Yang, Shu-Qian Zhang, Dong-Qing Zhang, Xiao-Rong Yang, Bao-Min Li, Gui-Mei Sheng. Clinical and EEG characteristics analysis of autoimmune encephalitis in children with positive and negative anti-N-methyl- D-aspartate receptor antibodies. Annals of palliative medicine. 2020 Sep;9(5):2575-2585

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PMID: 32921070

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