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Insecticides used for agricultural pest control, as cypermethrin-based insecticide (CBI) and fipronil-based insecticide (FBI), are constant threats to non-target aquatic organisms. This study aimed to investigate the effect of different concentrations of cypermethrin and fipronil on neurotoxicity and oxidative stress in Physalaemus gracilis. Physalaemus gracilis tadpoles were exposed to five insecticide concentrations and a control treatment, with six replicates. During the experimental period, the tadpole mortality rate was evaluated and after 168 h, the neurotoxic enzyme activity and metabolite quantification related to the antioxidant system were measured. Tadpoles reduced acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activities when exposed to 20 μg L-1 CBI and at all FBI concentrations, respectively. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities showed an increase from concentrations of 6 μg L-1 and 20 μg L-1 of CBI, respectively. After exposure of P. gracilis tadpoles to FBI, inhibitions of AChE and BChE were observed at the highest concentrations evaluated (500 and 1500 μg L-1). SOD activity decreased from 50 μg L-1 of FBI; however, catalase (CAT) and GST activities and carbonyl protein levels increased, regardless of the evaluated dose. We observed that both insecticides promoted oxidative stress and neurotoxic effects in P. gracilis tadpoles. These results suggest that biochemical biomarkers can be used for monitoring toxicity insecticides for the purpose of preservation of P. gracilis.


Camila F Rutkoski, Natani Macagnan, Alexandre Folador, Vrandrieli J Skovronski, Aline M B do Amaral, Jossiele Wesz Leitemperger, Maiara Dorneles Costa, Paulo A Hartmann, Caroline Müller, Vania L Loro, Marilia T Hartmann. Cypermethrin- and fipronil-based insecticides cause biochemical changes in Physalaemus gracilis tadpoles. Environmental science and pollution research international. 2021 Jan;28(4):4377-4387

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PMID: 32940837

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