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    In acetic acid bacteria such as Gluconobacter oxydans or Gluconobacter cerinus, pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) in the periplasm serves as the redox cofactor for several membrane-bound dehydrogenases that oxidize polyhydric alcohols to rare sugars, which can be used as a healthy alternative for traditional sugars and sweeteners. These oxidation reactions obey the generally accepted Bertrand Hudson's rule, in which only the polyhydric alcohols that possess cis d-erythro hydroxyl groups can be oxidized to 2-ketoses using PQQ as a cofactor, while the polyhydric alcohols excluding cis d-erythro hydroxyl groups ruled out oxidation by PQQ-dependent membrane-bound dehydrogenases. Membrane fractions of G. oxydans were prepared and used as a cell-free catalyst to oxidize galactitol, with or without PQQ as a cofactor. In this study, we reported an interesting oxidation reaction that the polyhydric alcohols galactitol (dulcitol), which do not possess cis d-erythro hydroxyl groups, can be oxidized by PQQ-dependent membrane-bound dehydrogenase(s) of acetic acid bacteria at the C-3 and C-5 hydroxyl groups to produce rare sugars l-xylo-3-hexulose and d-tagatose. This reaction may represent an exception to Bertrand Hudson's rule. Bertrand Hudson's rule is a well-known theory in polyhydric alcohols oxidation by PQQ-dependent membrane-bound dehydrogenase in acetic acid bacteria. In this study, galactitol oxidation by a PQQ-dependent membrane-bound dehydrogenase represents an exception to the Bertrand Hudson's rule. Further identification of the associated enzymes and deciphering the explicit enzymatic mechanism will prove this theory. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


    Yirong Xu, Ping Chi, Jiyang Lv, Muhammad Bilal, Hairong Cheng. L-Xylo-3-hexulose, a new rare sugar produced by the action of acetic acid bacteria on galactitol, an exception to Bertrand Hudson's rule. Biochimica et biophysica acta. General subjects. 2021 Jan;1865(1):129740

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    PMID: 32956752

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