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Recent years have seen the development of a number of biosensor architectures that rely on target binding-induced changes in the rate of electron transfer from an electrode-bound receptor. Most often, the interrogation of these sensors has relied on voltammetric methods, such as square-wave voltammetry, which limit their time resolution to a few seconds. Here, we describe the use of an impedance-based approach, which we have termed electrochemical phase interrogation, as a means of collecting high time resolution measurements with sensors in this class. Specifically, using changes in the electrochemical phase to monitor target binding in an electrochemical-aptamer based (EAB) sensor, we achieve subsecond temporal resolution and multihour stability in measurements performed directly in undiluted whole blood. Electrochemical phase interrogation also offers improved insights into EAB sensors' signaling mechanism. By modeling the interfacial resistance and capacitance using equivalent circuits, we find that the only parameter that is altered by target binding is the charge-transfer resistance. This confirms previous claims that binding-induced changes in electron-transfer kinetics drive signaling in this class of sensors. Considering that a wide range of electrochemical biosensor architectures rely on this signaling mechanism, we believe that electrochemical phase interrogation may prove generalizable toward subsecond measurements of molecular targets.


Alex M Downs, Julian Gerson, Kyle L Ploense, Kevin W Plaxco, Philippe Dauphin-Ducharme. Subsecond-Resolved Molecular Measurements Using Electrochemical Phase Interrogation of Aptamer-Based Sensors. Analytical chemistry. 2020 Oct 20;92(20):14063-14068

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PMID: 32959647

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