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The simulation of individual particle tracks and the chemical stage following water radiolysis in biological tissue is an effective means of improving our knowledge of the physico-chemical contribution to the biological effect of ionizing radiation. However, the step-by-step simulation of the reaction kinetics of radiolytic species is the most time-consuming task in Monte Carlo track-structure simulations, with long simulation times that are an impediment to research. In this work, we present the implementation of the independent reaction times (IRT) method in Geant4-DNA Monte Carlo toolkit to improve the computational efficiency of calculating G-values, defined as the number of chemical species created or lost per 100 eV of deposited energy. The computational efficiency of IRT, as implemented, is compared to that from available Geant4-DNA step-by-step simulations for electrons, protons and alpha particles covering a wide range of linear energy transfer (LET). The accuracy of both methods is verified using published measured data from fast electron irradiations for • OH and e aq - for time-dependent G-values. For IRT, simulations in the presence of scavengers irradiated by cobalt-60 γ-ray and 2 MeV protons are compared with measured data for different scavenging capacities. In addition, a qualitative assessment comparing measured LET-dependent G-values with Geant4-DNA calculations in pure liquid water is presented. The IRT improved the computational efficiency by three orders of magnitude relative to the step-by-step method while differences in G-values by 3.9% at 1 μs were found. At 7 ps, • OH and e aq - yields calculated with IRT differed from recent published measured data by 5% ± 4% and 2% ± 4%, respectively. At 1 μs, differences were 9% ± 5% and 6% ± 7% for • OH and e aq - , respectively. Uncertainties are one standard deviation. Finally, G-values at different scavenging capacities and LET-dependent G-values reproduced the behavior of measurements for all radiation qualities. The comprehensive validation of the Geant4-DNA capabilities to accurately simulate the chemistry following water radiolysis is an ongoing work. The implementation presented in this work is a necessary step to facilitate performing such a task. © 2020 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.


José Ramos-Méndez, Wook-Geun Shin, Mathieu Karamitros, Jorge Domínguez-Kondo, Ngoc Hoang Tran, Sebastien Incerti, Carmen Villagrasa, Yann Perrot, Václav Štěpán, Shogo Okada, Eduardo Moreno-Barbosa, Bruce Faddegon. Independent reaction times method in Geant4-DNA: Implementation and performance. Medical physics. 2020 Nov;47(11):5919-5930

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PMID: 32970844

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