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    Synaptic strength and reliability are determined by the number of vesicles released per action potential and the availability of release-competent vesicles in the readily releasable pool (RRP). Compared with release of a single vesicle (univesicular release), multivesicular release (MVR) would speed up RRP depletion, yet whether the RRP is refilled differently during the two different release modes has not been investigated. Here, we address this question by quantitative optical imaging with an axon-targeting glutamate sensor, iGluSnFRpre. We found that hippocampal synapses preferentially release multiple vesicles per action potential at high extracellular calcium or by paired-pulse stimulation. When MVR prevails, the RRP is recovered very rapidly with a time constant of 430 ms. This rapid recovery is mediated by dynamin-dependent endocytosis followed by direct reuse of retrieved vesicles. Furthermore, our simulation proved that the portion of retrieved vesicles that directly refill the RRP increases dramatically (>70%) in MVR compared with that in univesicular release (<10%). These results suggest that the contribution of rapid and direct recruitment of retrieved vesicle to the RRP changes dynamically with release mode at the level of individual synapses, which suggests a form of presynaptic homeostatic plasticity for reliable synaptic transmission during various synaptic activity.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The number of vesicles released in response to an action potential and the number of release competent vesicles in the readily releasable pool (RRP) are the fundamental determinants of synaptic efficacy. Despite its functional advantages, releasing multiple vesicles, especially at small synapses, can deplete the RRP after a couple of action potentials. To prevent failure of synaptic transmission, the RRP should be refilled rapidly, yet whether the RRP replenishment process is regulated by the release mode has not been investigated. Here, using quantitative optical glutamate imaging and simulation, we demonstrate that the contribution of the fast refilling mechanism changes with release mode at the level of individual synapses, suggesting a rapid form of presynaptic homeostatic plasticity during various synaptic activity. Copyright © 2020 the authors.


    Yujin Kim, Unghwi Lee, Chunghon Choi, Sunghoe Chang. Release Mode Dynamically Regulates the RRP Refilling Mechanism at Individual Hippocampal Synapses. The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience. 2020 Oct 28;40(44):8426-8437

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    PMID: 32989096

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