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    The large-scale utilization of nanotechnology depends on public and consumer confidence in the safety of this new technology. Studying the interaction of nanoparticles with immune cells plays a vital role in the safety assessment of nanomedicine. Although some researches have indicated that the immune cells undergo severe interfere after phagocytosis of nanoparticles, the impact on immune system of the whole body are still unclear. Here, we use immune cells labeled transgenic zebrafish to study the mechanisms of nanoparticles on zebrafish immune cells. We demonstrate that gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) phagocytized by immune cells can reduce and retard the sensitivity of immune response, resulting nanoparticle-induced bluntness in immune cell (NIBIC). RNA-seq and functional analysis reveal that NIBIC is mainly induced by the inhibiting expression of chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5). Furthermore, PVP-modified Au NPs can eliminate NIBIC by inhibiting the cell phagocytosis. Our results highlight the potential risk for Au NPs in vivo and further the understanding of the mechanism of the interaction between Au NPs and the immune response. We should consider this factor in future material design and pay more attention to the process of using nanomedicines on immune diseases. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    Jianxiong Xu, Jinxuan Wang, Juhui Qiu, Hua Liu, Yi Wang, Yuliang Cui, Rose Humphry, Nan Wang, Colm DurKan, Yaokai Chen, Yanqiu Lu, Qinfeng Ma, Wei Wu, Yang Luo, Lehui Xiao, Guixue Wang. Nanoparticles retard immune cells recruitment in vivo by inhibiting chemokine expression. Biomaterials. 2021 Jan;265:120392

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    PMID: 32992116

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