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Porphyromonas gingivalis, a pathogen of chronic periodontitis, is an asaccharolytic microorganism that solely utilizes nutritional amino acids as its energy source and cellular constituents. The bacterium is considered to incorporate proteinaceous nutrients mainly as dipeptides, thus exopeptidases that produce dipeptides from polypeptides are critical for survival and proliferation. We present here an overview of dipeptide production by P. gingivalis mediated by dipeptidyl-peptidases (DPPs), e.g., DPP4, DPP5, DPP7, and DPP11, serine exopeptidases localized in periplasm, which release dipeptides from the N-terminus of polypeptides. Additionally, two other exopeptidases, acylpeptidyl-oligopeptidase (AOP) and prolyl tripeptidyl-peptidase A (PTP-A), which liberate N-terminal acylated di-/tri-peptides and tripeptides with Pro at the third position, respectively, provide polypeptides in an acceptable form for DPPs. Hence, a large fraction of dipeptides is produced from nutritional polypeptides by DPPs with differential specificities in combination with AOP and PTP-A. The resultant dipeptides are then incorporated across the inner membrane mainly via a proton-dependent oligopeptide transporter (POT), a member of the major facilitator superfamily. Recent studies also indicate that DPP4 and DPP7 directly link between periodontal and systemic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus and coagulation abnormality, respectively. Therefore, these dipeptide-producing and incorporation molecules are considered to be potent targets for prevention and treatment of periodontal and related systemic diseases. © 2020 The Authors. Molecular Oral Microbiology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Citation

Takayuki K Nemoto, Yuko Ohara Nemoto. Dipeptidyl-peptidases: Key enzymes producing entry forms of extracellular proteins in asaccharolytic periodontopathic bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis. Molecular oral microbiology. 2021 Apr;36(2):145-156

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PMID: 33006264

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