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    Phthalic acid esters (PAE) are widely used during chemical synthesis and do not form covalent linkages with products. It has been reported that exposure to PAE affects the immune response. However, their effect on antibody concentrations in children is still under investigation. We aimed to examine the association between early-life phthalate exposure and antibody concentrations in children in a longitudinal birth cohort established in 2000-2001. We recruited 398 neonates in central Taiwan and followed them up every 2-3 years, with various antibody-related studies at 11- and 14-year follow-ups. Seven urinary phthalate metabolites were quantified in mothers during pregnancy and children aged 11 years. Four antibody concentrations were analyzed in children aged 11 and 14 years. The percent change in antibody concentrations from ages 11 to 14 years was calculated and its association with phthalate exposure was evaluated via multivariate regression analysis. Eighty-one followed-up children were with sufficient data. After adjusting for prenatal exposure and other confounders, double concentrations of the urinary sum of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (ΣDEHPm) and mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) were associated with a 18.06% (95% CI = 3.34%, 32.78%) and 22.53% decrease (95% CI = 3.39%, 41.66%) in antibody concentration against hepatitis B, respectively. Phthalate exposure was found to be related to decreased antibody concentrations against hepatitis B (DEHP, DBnP) in the early teens. This exposure is suggested to be considered for clinical re-booster vaccines among junior high school students. Further verification with additional cohorts and studies on the underlying mechanisms of phthalate exposure are warranted. Copyright © 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.


    Hui-Ju Wen, Yue Leon Guo, Pen-Hua Su, Chien-Wen Sun, Shu-Li Julie Wang. Prenatal and childhood exposure to phthalic acid esters and vaccination antibodies in children: A 15-year follow-up birth cohort study. Environment international. 2020 Dec;145:106134

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    PMID: 33011549

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