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    The carotid body may undergo plasticity changes during development/ageing and in response to environmental (hypoxia and hyperoxia), metabolic, and inflammatory stimuli. The different cell types of the carotid body express a wide series of growth factors and corresponding receptors, which play a role in the modulation of carotid body function and plasticity. In particular, type I cells express nerve growth factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, neurotrophin 3, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, ciliary neurotrophic factor, insulin-like-growth factor-I and -II, basic fibroblast growth factor, epidermal growth factor, transforming growth factor-α and -β, interleukin-1β and -6, tumor necrosis factor-α, vascular endothelial growth factor, and endothelin-1. Many specific growth factor receptors have been identified in type I cells, indicating autocrine/paracrine effects. Type II cells may also produce growth factors and express corresponding receptors. Future research will have to consider growth factors in further experimental models of cardiovascular, metabolic, and inflammatory diseases and in human (normal and pathologic) samples. From a methodological point of view, microarray and/or proteomic approaches would permit contemporary analyses of large groups of growth factors. The eventual identification of physical interactions between receptors of different growth factors and/or neuromodulators could also add insights regarding functional interactions between different trophic mechanisms.

    Citation

    Elena Stocco, Silvia Barbon, Cinzia Tortorella, Veronica Macchi, Raffaele De Caro, Andrea Porzionato. Growth Factors in the Carotid Body-An Update. International journal of molecular sciences. 2020 Oct 01;21(19)

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    PMID: 33019660

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