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We analyzed a series of novel noninvasive urinary biomarkers for their ability to objectively monitor the longitudinal clinical status of patients with urological chronic pelvic pain syndrome. Baseline, 6 and 12-month urine samples were collected (216) and used to quantify vascular endothelial growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor 1 (R1), neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL), matrix metalloproteinase-2, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, and MMP-9/NGAL complex by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Patient symptom changes were classified as improved, stable or worse using a functional clustering algorithm. Proportional odds models were used to evaluate the association between symptom change and urinary biomarkers. Across all sampled participants, longitudinal decreases in normalized VEGF concentration (pg/μg) were associated with pain severity improvement, and decreases in MMP-9, NGAL and VEGF-R1 concentration (pg/ml) as well as NGAL normalized concentration were associated with improved urinary symptoms. Longitudinal decreases in normalized VEGF-R1 were associated with pain improvement in patients with moderate widespreadness, no bladder symptoms and no painful filling. Lower baseline normalized VEGF-R1 concentration was associated with pain improvement in patients with pelvic pain only. Higher baseline MMP-9/NGAL levels were associated with pain and urinary improvement across all participants. Moreover, longitudinal increases in MMP-2 concentration was associated with improved pain in men and patients with painful filling. Our results suggest these urinary biomarkers may be useful in monitoring urological chronic pelvic pain syndrome symptom changes with respect to both urinary severity and pain severity. With further testing, they may represent objective biological measures of urological chronic pelvic pain syndrome progression and/or resolution while also providing insight into the pathophysiology of urological chronic pelvic pain syndrome.


Roopali Roy, Alisa J Stephens, Cassandra Daisy, Lauren Merritt, Craig W Newcomb, Jiang Yang, Adelle Dagher, Adam Curatolo, Monisha Sachdev, Brendan McNeish, Richard Landis, Adrie van Bokhoven, Andrew El-Hayek, John Froehlich, Michel A Pontari, David Zurakowski, Richard S Lee, Marsha A Moses. Association of Longitudinal Changes in Symptoms and Urinary Biomarkers in Patients with Urological Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome: A MAPP Research Network Study. The Journal of urology. 2021 Feb;205(2):514-523

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PMID: 33026902

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