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    The guanylyl cyclase-activating protein 1, GCAP1, activates or inhibits retinal guanylyl cyclase (retGC) depending on cellular Ca2+ concentrations. Several point mutations of GCAP1 have been associated with impaired calcium sensitivity that eventually triggers progressive retinal degeneration. In this work, we demonstrate that the recombinant human protein presents a highly dynamic monomer-dimer equilibrium, whose dissociation constant is influenced by salt concentration and, more importantly, by protein binding to Ca2+ or Mg2+. Based on small-angle X-ray scattering data, protein-protein docking, and molecular dynamics simulations we propose two novel three-dimensional models of Ca2+-bound GCAP1 dimer. The different propensity of human GCAP1 to dimerize suggests structural differences induced by cation binding potentially involved in the regulation of retGC activity.


    Francesco Bonì, Valerio Marino, Carlo Bidoia, Eloise Mastrangelo, Alberto Barbiroli, Daniele Dell'Orco, Mario Milani. Modulation of Guanylate Cyclase Activating Protein 1 (GCAP1) Dimeric Assembly by Ca2+ or Mg2+: Hints to Understand Protein Activity. Biomolecules. 2020 Oct 05;10(10)

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    PMID: 33027977

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