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    The Sumida river estuary of Tokyo bay is often affected by fecal contamination from combined sewer overflows (CSOs). This study monitored the surface water quality from the upstream of the Sumida river to the estuary in October 2017, June 2018, and July 2018 after three long-duration rainfall events. Several types of sewage markers, including fecal bacteria and two types of bacteriophages as microbial markers, and five pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) as chemical markers were used to evaluate fecal contamination. CSO discharge was estimated separately from pumping stations and overflow chambers. The dominant contribution from overflow chambers was estimated to be as high as 86 - 91% of total discharge volume indicating their significance in controlling CSO pollution. High concentrations of sewage marker were observed in a wide area due to CSO discharge of more than 30 h in all 3 events. Escherichia coli was found to be as high as 4.00 - 4.57 log10 (CFU/100 mL). Meanwhile, caffeine showed the highest concentration of 2105 ng/L among PPCPs. It was found to be a useful indicator of recent contamination that captured a unique spatial distribution tendency. On the other hand, crotamiton, a conservative PPCP, was found to be highly diluted and might not be appropriate for tracking pollutants under heavy rainfall events. The effect of CSO discharge pattern and tidal change on the distribution of sewage markers, including dispersion degree and pollutants travel time, was described. CSO pollutants were found to accumulate in the river mouth areas during high tide before being discharged into the estuary.


    Chomphunut Poopipattana, Motoaki Suzuki, Hiroaki Furumai. Impact of long-duration CSO events under different tidal change conditions on distribution of microbial indicators and PPCPs in Sumida river estuary of Tokyo Bay, Japan. Environmental science and pollution research international. 2021 Feb;28(6):7212-7225

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    PMID: 33029770

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