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    Objectives There is a global increase in infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria. The majority of research is on bacteremic Gram-negative infections (GNI), leaving a knowledge gap on the burden of non-bacteremic GNI. Our aim is to describe characteristics and determine the burden of bacteremic and non-bacteremic GNI in hospitalized patients in the Netherlands. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study of patients in eight hospitals with microbiologically confirmed GNI, between June 2013 and November 2015. In each hospital the first five adults meeting the eligibility criteria per week were enrolled. We estimated the national incidence and mortality of GNI by combining the cohort data with a national surveillance database for antimicrobial resistance. Results 1,954 patients with GNI were included of which 758 (39%) were bloodstream infections (BSI). 243 GNI (12%) involved multi-drug resistant pathogens. 30-day mortality rate was 11.1% (n = 217) Estimated national incidences of non-bacteremic GNI and bacteremic GNI in hospitalized adults were 74 (95% CI 58 - 89) and 86 (95% CI 72-100) per 100,000 person years, yielding estimated annual numbers of 30-day all-cause mortality deaths of 1,528 (95% CI 1,102-1,954) for bacteremic and 982 (95% CI 688 - 1,276) for non-bacteremic GNI. Conclusion GNI form a large mortality burden in a low-resistance country. A third of the associated mortality occurs after non-bacteremic GNI. Copyright © 2020 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

    Citation

    J W Timotëus Deelen, Wouter C Rottier, Cornelis H van Werkhoven, Sjoukje H S Woudt, Anton G M Buiting, J Wendelien Dorigo-Zetsma, Jan A J W Kluytmans, Paul D van der Linden, Steven F T Thijsen, Bart J M Vlaminckx, Annemarie J L Weersink, Heidi S M Ammerlaan, Marc J M Bonten, ISIS-AR study group. The burden of bacteremic and non-bacteremic Gram-negative infections: A prospective multicenter cohort study in a low-resistance country. The Journal of infection. 2020 Dec;81(6):895-901

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    PMID: 33031834

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