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    Nanotechnology has shown great promise in treating diverse diseases. However, developing nanomedicines that can cure autoimmune diseases without causing systemic immunosuppression is still quite challenging. Herein, we propose an all-in-one nanomedicine comprising an autoantigen peptide and CRISPR-Cas9 to restore specific immune tolerance by engineering dendritic cells (DCs) into a tolerogenic phenotype, which can expand autoantigen-specific regulatory T (Treg) cells. In brief, we utilized cationic lipid-assisted poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PEG-PLGA) nanoparticles to simultaneously encapsulate an autoimmune diabetes-relevant peptide (2.5mi), a CRISPR-Cas9 plasmid (pCas9), and three guide RNAs (gRNAs) targeting costimulatory molecules (CD80, CD86, and CD40). We demonstrated that the all-in-one nanomedicine was able to effectively codeliver these components into DCs, followed by simultaneous disruption of the three costimulatory molecules and presentation of the 2.5mi peptide on the genome-edited DCs. The resulting tolerogenic DCs triggered the generation and expansion of autoantigen-specific Treg cells by presenting the 2.5mi peptide to CD4+ T cells in the absence of costimulatory signals. Using autoimmune type 1 diabetes (T1D) as a typical disease model, we demonstrated that our nanomedicine prevented autoimmunity to islet components and inhibited T1D development. Our all-in-one nanomedicine achieved codelivery of CRISPR-Cas9 and the peptide to DCs and could be easily applied to other autoimmune diseases by substitution of different autoantigen peptides.

    Citation

    Ying-Li Luo, Li-Fang Liang, Yun-Jiu Gan, Jing Liu, Yue Zhang, Ya-Nan Fan, Gui Zhao, Anna Czarna, Zi-Dong Lu, Xiao-Jiao Du, Song Shen, Cong-Fei Xu, Zhe-Xiong Lian, Jun Wang. An All-in-One Nanomedicine Consisting of CRISPR-Cas9 and an Autoantigen Peptide for Restoring Specific Immune Tolerance. ACS applied materials & interfaces. 2020 Oct 28;12(43):48259-48271

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    PMID: 33070614

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