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Due to further developments in the diagnosis of glandular cervical changes with the definition of several new entities, the exact classification of these can only be achieved with the help of cytomorphology and additive methods. The aim of this work is to give an overview of the status and future perspectives of cytomorphological diagnostics and biomarkers in this setting. Our own expertise and literature data were considered and evaluated. We especially covered the benign group including microglandular hyperplasia, tubal metaplasia, and reactive withdrawal induced changes, as well as adenocarcinoma in situ of usual type and invasive adenocarcinoma of usual type. Immunocytochemical markers may occasionally take a role in the evaluation of benign endocervical glandular proliferations, the mainstay of their interpretation occurs morphologically in the conventional routinely stained smears. Adenocarcinoma in situ of usual type has very characteristic cytological criteria, which are reproducible in daily work, and p16 positivity is a very useful marker for this HPV-related lesion. The present classification of invasive adenocarcinomas of the endocervix requires knowledge of new immunohistochemical and molecular technologies. Due to HPV vaccination we can expect a decrease of HPV associated adenocarcinomas and a relative increase of HPV negative, clinically more aggressive adenocarcinomas. The cytological features of some groups of non-HPV-associated adenocarcinomas are not specific. In these instances, the different biomarkers are more helpful.


Irena Baltisser. Cytological findings in glandular lesions of the uterine cervix]. Der Pathologe. 2020 Dec;41(Suppl 2):155-158

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PMID: 33113048

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