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Introduction: The larvae of Echinococcus, a parasitic tapeworm, cause hydatid disease. The most commonly involved organ after the liver is the lung but there are cases of hydatid cysts in all systems and organs, such as brain, muscle tissue, adrenal glands, mediastinum and pleural cavity. Extra-pulmonary intrathoracic hydatidosis can be a diagnostic challenge and a plain chest x-ray can be misleading. It can also lead to severe complications such as anaphylactic shock or tension pneumothorax. The purpose of this paper is to present a severe case of primary pleural hydatidosis, as well as discussing the difficulties that come with it during diagnosis and treatment. Case Report: We present the case of a 43-year-old male, working as a shepherd, presenting with moderate dyspnea, chest pain and weight loss. Chest x-ray revealed an uncharacteristic massive right pleural effusion and thoracic computed tomography (CT) confirmed it, as well as revealing multiple cystic formations of various sizes and liquid density within the pleural fluid. Blood work confirmed our suspicion of pleural hydatidosis with an elevated eosinophil count, typical in parasite diseases. Surgery was performed by right lateral thoracotomy and consisted of removal of the hydatid fluid and cysts found in the pleura. Patient was discharged 13 days postoperative with Albendazole treatment. Conclusion: Cases of primary pleural hydatidosis are very rare but must be taken into consideration in patients from endemic regions with jobs that may have exposure to this parasite. Proper treatment, both surgical and antiparasitic medication, can lead to a full recovery and a low chance of recurrent disease.

Citation

Cornel Savu, Alexandru Melinte, Vasile Grigorie, Laura Iliescu, Camelia Diaconu, Mihai Dimitriu, Bogdan Socea, Ovidiu Stiru, Valentin Varlas, Carmen Savu, Irina Balescu, Nicolae Bacalbasa. Primary Pleural Hydatidosis-A Rare Occurrence: A Case Report and Literature Review. Medicina (Kaunas, Lithuania). 2020 Oct 27;56(11)

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PMID: 33121083

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