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Triphenyltin (TPT) is widely used as a plastic stabilizer, insecticide and the most common fungicide in antifouling coatings. This paper reviewed the main literature evidences on the morphological and physiological changes of animal endocrine system induced by TPT, with emphasis on the research progress of TPT metabolism, neurological and reproductive regulation in animal endocrine system. Similar to tributyltin (TBT), the main effects of TPT on the potential health risks of 25 species of animals, from aquatic animals to mammals, are not only related to exposure dose and time, but also to age, sex and exposed tissue/cells. Moreover, current studies have shown that TPT can directly damage the endocrine glands, interfere with the regulation of neurohormones on endocrine function, and change hormone synthesis and/or the bioavailability (i.e., in the retinoid X receptor and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma RXR-PPARγ) in target cells. Importantly, TPT can cause biochemical and morphological changes of gonads and abnormal production of steroids, both of which are related to reproductive dysfunction, for example, the imposex of aquatic animals and the irregular estrous cycle of female mammals or spermatogenic disorders of male animals. Therefore, TPT should indeed be regarded as a major endocrine disruptor, which is essential for understanding the main toxic effects on different tissues and their pathogenic effects on endocrine, metabolism, neurological and reproductive dysfunction. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Shuwen He, Ping Li, Zhi-Hua Li. Review on endocrine disrupting toxicity of triphenyltin from the perspective of species evolution: Aquatic, amphibious and mammalian. Chemosphere. 2021 Apr;269:128711

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PMID: 33121818

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