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    The discovery of the function of humin (HM), an insoluble fraction of humic substances (HSs), as an extracellular electron mediator (EEM) in 2012 has provided insight into the role of HM in nature and its potential for in situ bioremediation of pollutants. The EEM function is thought to enable the energy network of various microorganisms using HM. Recently, a number of studies on the application of HM as EEM in anaerobic microbial cultures have been conducted. Even so, there is a need for developing a holistic view of HM EEM function. In this paper, we summarize all the available information on the properties of HM EEM function, its applications, possible redox-active structures, and the interaction between HM and microbial cells. We also suggest scopes for future HM research. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    Duyen Minh Pham, Takuya Kasai, Mirai Yamaura, Arata Katayama. Humin: No longer inactive natural organic matter. Chemosphere. 2021 Apr;269:128697

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    PMID: 33139048

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