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    Maternal dysglycemia-including diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance, and impaired fasting glucose-affects one in six pregnancies worldwide and represents a significant health risk to the mother and the fetus. Maternal dysglycemia is an independent risk factor for perinatal mortality, major congenital anomalies, and miscarriages. Furthermore, it increases the longer-term risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular morbidity, malignancies, and ophthalmic, psychiatric, and renal diseases in the mother. The most commonly encountered form of maternal dysglycemia is gestational diabetes. Currently, international consensus does not exist for diagnostic criteria defining gestational diabetes at 24-28 weeks gestation, and potential diagnostic glucose thresholds earlier in gestation require further investigation. Likewise, recommendations regarding the timing and modality (e.g., lifestyle or pharmacological) of treatment vary greatly. Because a precise diagnosis determines the appropriate treatment and outcome of the pregnancy, it is imperative that a better definition of maternal dysglycemia and its treatment be achieved. This article will address some of the controversies related to diagnosing and managing maternal dysglycemia. In addition, the article will discuss the impact of maternal dysglycemia on complications experienced by the mother and infant, both at birth and in later life.


    Corinne M Silva, Matthew E Arnegard, Christine Maric-Bilkan. Dysglycemia in Pregnancy and Maternal/Fetal Outcomes. Journal of women's health (2002). 2021 Feb;30(2):187-193

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    PMID: 33147099

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