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An in vitro biological study. The aim of this study was to explore the role of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) in the regulation of osteoclast-mediated osteolysis, and the possible mechanism involving BMP-2 and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathways. Recombinant human BMP-2 (rhBMP-2) has been approved as a therapeutic agent in spinal fusion and bone defect repair. However, its efficacy and clinical application are limited by associated complications including osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. The mechanism of BMP-2-induced osteolysis remains unknown. Bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) were isolated from C57BL/6J mice and cultured with macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor activator for nuclear factor-κB Ligand (RANKL) to induce osteoclast differentiation. An in vitro bone resorption assay was performed by co-culturing BMMs and bone slides. The expression of BMP canonical and NF-κB signaling factors and their interaction during signal transduction were quantitated by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, Western blot analysis, confocal microscopy, and co-immunoprecipitation. BMP-2 enhanced osteoclast-mediated bone resorption via inducing osteoclast differentiation in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, a high concentration of BMP-2 significant upregulated phosphorylation of BMP signaling factors p-Smad1/5/8 and NF-κB downstream factor p65, and promoted the degeneration of IκBα. In addition, BMP-2 induced osteoclast differentiation through coupling between BMP receptor II and RANK. High concentrations of BMP-2 enhanced osteoclast-mediated bone resorption by promoting RANKL-induced pre-osteoclast differentiation, probably by mediating the cross-talk between BMP canonical and NF-κB signaling pathways.Level of Evidence: N/A. Copyright © 2020 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.


Xiong Miao, Jiabin Yuan, Jinhui Wu, Jiaoyang Zheng, Weina Zheng, Fei Wang, Chao Wang, Xiaoming Li, Shu Liu, Zhicai Shi, Jingfeng Li. Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 Promotes Osteoclasts-mediated Osteolysis via Smad1 and p65 Signaling Pathways. Spine. 2021 Feb 15;46(4):E234-E242

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PMID: 33156278

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