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Supernumerary B chromosomes (Bs) are very promising structures, among others, in that they are an additional genomic compartment for evolution. In this study, we tested the presence and frequency of B chromosomes and performed the first cytogenetic examination of the common nase (Chondrostoma nasus). We investigated the individuals from two populations in the Vistula River basin, in Poland, according to the chromosomal distribution of the C-bands and silver nucleolar organizer regions (Ag-NORs), using sequential staining with AgNO3 and chromomycin A3 (CMA3). Furthermore, we analyzed the chromosomal localization of two rDNA families (45S and 5S rDNA) using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with rDNA probes. C. nasus individuals showed a standard (A) chromosome set consisting of 2n = 50: 12 metacentric, 32 submetacentric, and 6 acrocentric chromosomes (NF = 94). Fourteen out of the 20 analyzed individuals showed 1-2 mitotically unstable submetacentric B chromosomes of different sizes. Six of them, in 14.1% of the analyzed metaphase plates, had a single, medium-sized submetacentric B (Bsm) chromosome (2n = 51) with a heterochromatic block located in its pericentromeric region. The other seven individuals possessed a Bsm (2n = 51) in 19.4% of the analyzed metaphase plates, and a second Bsm chromosome (2n = 52), the smallest in the set, in 15.5% of metaphase plates, whereas one female was characterized by both Bsm chromosomes (2n = 52) in 14.3% of the analyzed metaphase plates. AgNORs, GC-rich DNA sites, and 28S rDNA hybridization sites were observed in the short arms of two submetacentric chromosome pairs of A set. The constitutive heterochromatin was visible as C bands in the centromeric regions of almost all C. nasus chromosomes and in the pericentromeric region of several chromosome pairs. Two 5S rDNA hybridization sites in the pericentromeric position of the largest acrocentric chromosome pair were observed, whereas two other such sites in co-localization on a smaller pair of NOR chromosomes indicate a species-specific character. The results herein broaden our knowledge in the field of B chromosome distribution and molecular cytogenetics of C. nasus: a freshwater species from the Leuciscidae family.


Alicja Boroń, Anna Grabowska, Aneta Spóz, Anna Przybył. B Chromosomes and Cytogenetic Characteristics of the Common Nase Chondrostoma nasus (Linnaeus, 1758). Genes. 2020 Nov 06;11(11)

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PMID: 33172121

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