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Extended spectrum Beta-lactamases (ESBLs) and AmpC beta-lactamases (AmpC) are the common enzymes produced by gram negative bacilli, which are their main mechanisms of resistance to all generations of cephalosporins. Hence, this study aimed to determine the magnitude of ESBLs and AmpC producing gram negative bacilli (GNB) isolated from clinical specimens at International clinical Laboratories in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A cross sectional study was conducted from January to May 2018. From different clinical specimens, 338 GNB were isolated and characterized. Bacterial species identification, antimicrobial susceptibility testing and screening for ESBLs and AmpC production were performed using Phoenix automated system (BD phoenix100). ESBLs production was confirmed using a combination disc method. All Cefoxitin resistant and confirmed ESBLs producing GNB were confirmed for AmpC beta-lactamases production by AmpC confirmatory Neo-Sensitabs discs (ROSCO tablet). Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20 software. E. coli 66.0% (224/338) followed by K. pneumoniae 12.1% (41/338) were GNB most frequently isolated. The overall magnitude of ESBLs producing GNB was 38.8% (131/338) and the extent of AmpC beta-lactamase producing GNB was 2.4% (8/338). Majority of ESBLs and AmpC beta-lactamases producing GNB were isolated from urine specimens 47.5% (116/338). Ampicillin (75.4%), amoxicillin with clavulanic acid (64.0%) and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (55.6%) were most the antibiotics to which resistance was most commonly found. The multidrug resistance (MDR) level of GNB was 74.0% (250/338). Of ESBLs and AmpC beta-lactamases producing GNB, 99.3% were MDR (p < 0.05). The high magnitude of ESBLs and AmpC beta-lactamases producing GNB calls the needs of strong intervention to minimize further occurrence and spread of such GNB. More importantly, the MDR level was high which suggests continuous monitoring & reviewing of antimicrobial policy in hospitals and the country at large.


Saba Gebremichael Tekele, Dejenie Shiferaw Teklu, Kassu Desta Tullu, Samuel Kinde Birru, Melese Hailu Legese. Extended-spectrum Beta-lactamase and AmpC beta-lactamases producing gram negative bacilli isolated from clinical specimens at International Clinical Laboratories, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. PloS one. 2020;15(11):e0241984

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PMID: 33180785

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